Rabu, 11 April 2012



Using Articles: a, an, the
Articles are little words that we use before a noun.
There are three articles:
• a;
• an;
• the.
Articles can be definite or indefinite.
'The' is the definite article.
'A' and 'an' are indefinite articles.
Articles are a type of determiner. You don't need to use an article if you are using a different determiner.
Definite Article: the
There is only one definite article: 'the'.
Use 'the' when the noun you are talking about refers to something specific, or the person you are speaking to knows what you are referring to.
The dog is on the chair.
I am talking about a specific dog. You know which dog I am talking about.
We also use 'the' when we are talking about unique objects or places.
The Eiffel Tower is in Paris.
There is only one Eiffel Tower. It is unique.
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
There is only one Earth and one Sun.
We can use 'the' with singular and plural nouns.
The dog.
The dogs.
Learn more about singular and plural nouns.
Indefinite Article: a, an
There are two indefinite articles: 'a' and 'an'.
Use 'a' or 'an' when the noun you are talking about does not refer to something specific.
I would like a banana.
I'm not talking about one specific banana. Any banana is ok.
We use 'a' or 'an' to introduce something for the first time. After we have introduced it, we can use 'the'.
John has a dog and a cat. The dog is called Rover, and the cat is called Fluffy.
Use 'a dog' and 'a cat' in the first sentence to introduce them. In the second sentence I use 'the dog' and 'the cat' because you know which dog and cat I am talking about.
We can only use 'a' and 'an' with singular nouns.
A dog.
Do I use 'a' or 'an'?
Use 'a' when the noun starts with a consonant sound.
A car.
A banana.
A television.
Use 'an' when the noun starts with a vowel sound.
An apple.
An event.
An umbrella.
Vowels are the letters a, e, i, o, u. All the other letters are consonants.
It is the first sound of the word that is important, not the first letter.
Some nouns that start with a consonant have a vowel sound. We use 'an'.
An hour.
'Hour' starts with the sound /a
ʊ/. It is a vowel sound.
Some nouns that start with a vowel have a consonant sound. We use 'a'.
A university.
'University' starts with the sound /j/. It is a consonant sound.
We use special symbols to show different sounds. They are called the phonetic alphabet.
No Article (Zero Article)
Sometimes we don't use an article at all.
We don't use an article when we are talking about things generally, or when we are talking about all instances of something.
I don't like apples.
In this sentence I am talking about apples generally. I am referring to all apples.
I don't like the apples we bought yesterday.
In this sentence I am referring to specific apples (the ones we bought yesterday), so I say 'the apples'.
There are certain types of nouns that don't use articles.

1. Countries, cities, and states
We don't use articles before the names of cities, countries, or states.
I live in London.
The exception is names that have a plural noun, or include the word 'kingdom', 'republic', 'state', or 'commonwealth'. We always use 'the' before these names.
The Philippines
The United Kingdom
The United States of America

2. Academic subjects
We don't use articles before the names of academic subjects.
John studies economics and science.
Using Articles
The article goes before the noun. You can only use one article or determiner with each noun.
article + noun
Knowing which article to use can be tricky, and you will discover lots of exceptions. Don't worry if you don't understand it all now.

What Are Articles? Learning About A, An and The
Articles are just three in number, but do a lot of work in the language. Learning articles is not tough for ESL students and can be learnt by understanding the rules of usage. Articles are of two types: Definite (‘The’) and Indefinite (‘A’ and ‘An’).

• Rules of Usage
Mr. Sharma – “Where is Tom?”
Ms. Sharma – “In the Kitchen.”
Mr. Sharma – “Tell him, I have bought a shirt, a ball and an umbrella for him”
Mr. Sharma – “Let’s turn off the light and give him a surprise”
In the above piece of conversation, three words are italicized. Did you also notice that these words are preceding nouns? These italicized words are articles, and are used before Nouns.
Articles are of two types: Definite Article and Indefinite Articles. The definite article is “the,” and the indefinite articles are “a” and “an.”
Rules of usage are briefly discussed below:
• Definite Article – "The"
• “The” is a definite article and is used to refer to specific or particular person or thing.
• Example: The little girl was crying. (In this sentence, we are talking of a specific girl.)
• “The” can also be used refer to something that has already been referred to if it is clear from the context;
Example: The book you want is not available. (Which book? The one that you want.)
• The article “The” is also used when a singular noun represents the whole class.
Example: The cow is revered as a holy animal in India.
• The article “The” is also used before certain proper nouns.
Rivers – The Ganga is a holy river of India.
Deserts – The Gobi desert is a cold desert.
Group of Islands – The West Indies are beautiful islands.
The same way it is used before the names of Mountain Ranges, certain Books (The i, The Gita) names of Canals (TheSuez Canal), names of Oceans and Seas (The Pacific Ocean), names of musical instruments (The flute)
• The is also used before names of unique things;
Example: The sun, The moon
• It is also used before a Proper noun when it is qualified by an adjective.
Example: The great playwright Shakespeare
• Before Superlative form of adjectives;
Example: The tallest boy in the class should sit at the back.
• Before Adverbs in Comparative form;
Example: The healthier the better.
• Indefinite Articles – “A” and “An”
• The indefinite article is used to represent one (in its numerical sense).
Example: Give me a pen.
• In the same sense as any, but requiring to be specific;
Example: Is there a hotel near by? (There are many hotels in the city, but is there one nearby?)
Paris is an interesting city.
• To use a proper noun as a common noun;
Example: A Mahatma Gandhi came to his rescue.
• To introduce something for the first time;
Example: This is a cat.
• “A” or “An”
The problem that ESL students usually face is when to use “A” and when to use “An.”
• “An” is used before nouns beginning with vowel sounds.
Example: an umbrella, an hour, an elephant, an event
• “A” is used before nouns beginning with consonant sounds.
Example: a banana, a cat, a dog
• No Article
At times articles are not used at all. Some of such cases are:
• When a statement is made generally.
Example: I do not like apples.
Children like chocolates.
• Names of countries, states, cities, academic subjects, languages, names of relations.
Example: I am visiting London.
Ron is studying Geography.
Reena speaks good English.
Mother is not at home.
(The exception to the rule is names of countries using the word republic or state; The United States of America)
The best way to learn usage of articles is a lot of practice. The difference in the usage of “A” and “An” can also be understood by speaking the noun aloud.
• Teaching Articles
Classroom activities can be taken up to practice the same. Some suggested activities are:
• Complete the sentences;
• Edit a paragraph;
• Supply articles in a paragraph from which articles have been deleted;
• Try speaking a paragraph without articles. (This sends the class roaring, they just love it)

Pengunaan a, an dan the

Sebagai article, ‘a’ dan ‘an’ artinya adalah satu. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kedua artcle ini dapat diterjemahkan menjadi sebuah/seorang/seekor/sehelai. hal ini tergantung dari noun yang mengikutinya. Misalnya :
• an apple
• a lady
Artikel ‘a’ digunakan jika noun yang m
engikutinya konsonan, sedangkanarticle ‘an’ digunakan jika noun yang mengikutinya berbunyi huruf vokal. Penggunaan kedua artice ini tergantung pada pelafalan (pronounciation) dibagian awal dari noun tersebut, bukan tergantung penulisannya. Misalnya :
• Please give me a cup of coffee.
• There is an apple in the table.
The umumnya digunakan untuk merujuk noun yang sudah pernah disebutkan sebelumnya. Dengan adanya the, noun yang dimaksud menjadi lebih spesifik. Misalnya :
• The water in my well is cotaminated.
• Jason father bought him the bicycle that he had wanted for his birthday.
Refensi : http://swarabhaskara.com
A, An or The?
When do we say "the dog" and when do we say "a dog"? (On this page we talk only about singular, countable nouns.)
The and a/an are called "articles". We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite" like this:
Definite Indefinite
the a, an
We use "definite" to mean sure, certain. "Definite" is particular.
We use "indefinite" to mean not sure, not certain. "Indefinite" is general.
When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an.
Think of the sky at night. In the sky we see 1 moon and millions of stars. So normally we would say:
• I saw the moon last night.
• I saw a star last night.
Look at these examples:
The a, an
• The capital of France is Paris.
• I have found the book that I lost.
• Have you cleaned the car?
• There are six eggs in the fridge.
• Please switch off the TV when you finish. • I was born in a town.
• John had an omelette for lunch.
• James Bond ordered a drink.
• We want to buy an umbrella.
• Have you got a pen?
Of course, often we can use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation, not the word. Look at these examples:
• We want to buy an umbrella. (Any umbrella, not a particular umbrella.)
• Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. We are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella.)

Didalam bahasa Inggris dikenal dua jenis artikel, yakni artikel tidak tentu (indefinite article) yakni ‘a’, ‘an’. Kemudian artikel tertentu (definite article) yakni ‘The’. Kedua-duanya apabila direkatkan pada suatu kata benda maka konteksnya akan berubah, dimana artikel tidak tentu digunakan untuk merujuk pada suatu benda umum, yang mana kita tidak memberikan penekanan apa-apa pada kata benda tersebut.


A man sitting at bench (seorang pria duduk di bangku)
pada kalimat diatas kata ‘pria’ tersebut tidak diberikan penekanan apa-apa.

Contoh lagi:
A man sitting at bench, THE man is fat. (seorang pria duduk di bangku, pria itu sangat gemuk)
Pada kalimat yang kedua ini, kata THE digunakan karena memberikan penekanan pada pria itu bahwa ia gemuk.

Artikel tidak tentu (indefinite article)Artikel tidak tentu dalam bahasa Inggris adalah a, an. Keduanya digunakan tergantung pada kata sifat/benda yang menyertainya. Apabila kata sifat/benda itu berawalan huruf mati, atau huruf vokal yang dibunyikan seperti huruf mati, maka artikel ‘a’ digunakan.

• a computer
• a student
• a university
• a European

Sedangkan an digunakan apabila kata sifat/benda yang
menyertainya adalah berawalan vokal atau konsonan yang dibunyikan vokal:

• an hour
• an ear
• an Islamic Law

Kata sandang ‘an’ digunakan pula untuk singkatan, atau huruf yang berdiri sendiri:
• an X
• an MP3
• an KGB

1. Artikel a, an hanya digunakan untuk kata benda yang dapat dihitung (countable), jadi kata benda uncountable seperti sugar, sand, physics, mathematics tidak bisa diberikan artikel a, an.
2. Jangan gunakan artikel a, an pada kata frasa/kata benda JAMAK! kita tidak bisa mengatakan ‘a computers’ atau ‘a men’. Cukup katakan ‘computers’ atau ‘men’ saja.

Artikel Tertentu (Definite Article)
Artikel the digunakan tanpa memandang huruf awalan dari kata sifat/benda yang menyertainya.

Kegunaan Artikel Tertentu:
1. Digunakan pada frasa yang memiliki bilangan cardinal:
• The second year of boycott (tahun kedua dari pemboikotan)
• The third lesson (pelajaran ketiga)

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